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Lady Margaret Hall JCR plans ambitious constitutional reforms

first_imgLady Margaret Hall’s JCR are set to put an ambitious set of reforms to a vote at a general meeting on Sunday, following a wide-ranging review conducted by the LMH “Constitutional Reform Committee”. The reforms have been presented to JCR members by its President Josh Tulloch, a third-year PPE student. Lady Margaret Hall has put forward proposals branded “the most wide-ranging restructure of the JCR in modern JCR history” by its president Josh Tulloch. He continued: “I’m optimistic that the proposals will gain the confidence of both the JCR membership and the College, and I look forward to leaving our JCR in the best possible shape for future generations of LMH students.” The constitutional reforms will require approval by a majority of attendees at the General Meeting on Sunday, before the new constitution is introduced. President Josh Tulloch commented: “We are confident that these changes will better equip our officers to serve the needs of the JCR far more effectively. Reforms include the introduction of subcommittees to replace the current singletier officer system, as well as the expansion of the specific legal duties of the College Trustees. The JCR is also hoping to create a new role, that of an independent Chair. The Chair would run elections, provide constitutional interpretations and relieve the President of neutrality obligations. The consultation document argues that the new system will allow decisions to “be made by manageable-sized groups of Officers who are all directly concerned with the issues at hand.” “Comprehensive reform was promised to the JCR, and this document delivers!” The new position of an independent Chair is intended to ensure impartiality in enforcement of JCR rules, thereby releiving the trustees of their neutrality obligations and providing a check on the President’s power. The document acknowledges that the Chair will hold a large amount of power, but argues that this will be constrained by their ease of removal. Chair of the LMH JCR’s Constitutional Reform Committee and co-author of the constitutional reform proposals, Matthew Judson, a second-year PPE student at the college, said: “I’m delighted that we have managed to pull together some really robust reforms which I believe will strengthen governance, clarify grey areas, and help the JCR operate more smoothly. The new constitution will replace the existing committee with a senior committee comprised only of the current trustees (the President, Treasurer and Secretary), along with the chairs of the four new subcommittees: welfare, equalities, internal, and social. The changes also includes the creation of Honourary Memberships of the JCR, and a provision allowing the Trustees to veto general meetings in the event of legal issues.last_img read more

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Boxing: Wilder Dares Fury, Joshua

first_imgDeontay Wilder wants to fight Tyson Fury and Anthony Joshua after retaining his WBC heavyweight title with a technical knockout of Chris Arreola.The American, 30, dominated Arreola, whose corner stopped the fight after eight rounds in Birmingham, Alabama.That came despite Wilder suffering a suspected broken hand and torn bicep.“Of course I want the Furys, of course I want the Joshuas, but the question is, do they want me?” Wilder said.“My goal is to unify the division. I’m one of the baddest, hardest-hitting heavyweights in the business, so whoever’s got those belts, that’s who I want.”Wilder extended his undefeated record to 37 wins with 36 knockouts with his fourth title defence, but went to hospital for treatment on his right hand.American Arreola, 35, only took the fight – his fourth world heavyweight title bout – when Alexander Povetkin failed a drugs test in May.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegramlast_img read more

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Better Collective expands German portfolio acquiring WettPortal.com

first_img Related Articles MoneyMatrix boosts wire transfer options by integrating Klarna’s Sofort August 24, 2020 Submit Share Share Better Collective cautious on quick recovery as COVID drags growth momentum August 25, 2020 StumbleUpon Mateusz Juroszek – Non-stop STS will expand amid industry disruptions August 12, 2020 Michal Kopec,Seeking to expand its presence within the German online betting market, industry affiliate marketing specialist Better Collective has confirmed that it has agreed to acquire German sports portal WettPortal (WettPortal.com).Increasing its affiliate M&A drive, Copenhagen-based Better Collective continues to target the German online betting market, adding WettPortal to its growing web portfolio which includes the firm’s recent acquisition of SportFreunde last June.Operating since 2001, WettPortal is a legacy sports betting directory for the German market. Detailing its acquisition Better Collective management stated that it would support WettPortal operations by integrating the website with its platform/network technologies creating better cross synergy dynamics for German betting consumers.Michal Kopec, Head of M&A at Better Collective commented on the acquisition: “Wettportal is another strong addition to our German speaking portfolio, further improving our position in this important market.“It’s an established brand with big potential, which we can now explore further using our existing resources and know-how. We believe we will be able to build on the successful operation and drive the business forward.”Issuing a corporate update, Better Collective further commented on the WettPortal acquisition; “In the case of WettPortal, Better Collective is not only acquiring a strong platform, but also the knowledge and market insights that comes from years of activity in the market. As both WettPortal and Better Collective were founded with the common vision to help punters, the complementary skills from these experienced organisations will foster strong synergies as the merger takes hold. Better Collective’s offices in Copenhagen and Nis will also play a vital role in driving the business forward.”Michael Kosten, Owner of WettPortal backs Better Collective as new owner of WettPortal: “As WettPortal is an established product within the industry, we feel very comfortable handing the reigns over to another experienced company, like Better Collective.“WettPortal was founded on the principle of helping punters find the best information. As this is one of Better Collective’s core values, I know that they will help the platform develop even further, extending its reach, while maintaining WettPortal’s ideology.”last_img read more

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NBA veteran Jason Collins comes out as gay

first_imgJASON COLLINS (AP Photo/Michael Dwyer, File) NEW YORK (AP) — NBA veteran Jason Collins became the first active male player in the four major American professional sports to come out as gay.The 34-year-old center, who has played for six teams in 12 seasons, wrote a first-person account that was posted on Sports Illustrated’s website Monday. Collins finished the season with the Washington Wizards and is now a free agent. He says he wants to keep playing.“If I had my way, someone else would have already done this,” he writes. “Nobody has, which is why I’m raising my hand.”Collins played in a Final Four for Stanford and reached two NBA Finals. His twin brother, Jarron, was also a longtime NBA center. Collins says he told his brother he was gay last summer.“Jason has been a widely respected player and teammate throughout his career and we are proud he has assumed the leadership mantle on this very important issue,” NBA Commissioner David Stern said in a statement.White House spokesman Jay Carney called the decision courageous and former President Bill Clinton said it was “an important moment for professional sports and in the history of the LGBT community.”“I hope that everyone, particularly Jason’s colleagues in the NBA, the media and his many fans extend to him their support and the respect he has earned,” Clinton added.His daughter Chelsea, who knew the player from Stanford, tweeted: “Very proud of my friend Jason Collins for having the strength & courage to be the first openly gay player in the NBA.”Collins was also college roommates with another member of an American political dynasty: Rep. Joe Kennedy III, D-Mass. In his account, Collins wrote that he realized he needed to go public when the congressman walked in Boston’s gay pride parade last year — and Collins couldn’t join him.Kennedy tweeted Monday that “I’ve always been proud to call (Collins) a friend, and I’m even prouder to stand with him today.”Mostly a backup in his career, Collins has averaged 3.6 points and 3.8 rebounds for the Nets, Grizzlies, Timberwolves, Hawks, Celtics and Wizards. He was traded from Boston to Washington in February. Collins was the 18th pick in the first round of the 2001 NBA draft.Several NBA players voiced support, including Kobe Bryan, who tweeted that he was proud of Collins.“Don’t suffocate who u r because of the ignorance of others,” his post said, followed by the words “courage” and “support.”Wizards president Ernie Grunfeld weighed in saying: “We are extremely proud of Jason and support his decision to live his life proudly and openly. He has been a leader on and off the court and an outstanding teammate throughout his NBA career. Those qualities will continue to serve him both as a player and as a positive role model for others of all sexual orientation.”Several male athletes have previously come out after they retired, including the NBA’s John Amaechi, the NFL’s Esera Tuaolo and Major League Baseball’s Billy Bean. But Collins is the first to do so while planning to keep playing.Collins wrote that he quietly made a statement for gay rights even while keeping his sexual orientation a secret. He wore the No. 98 with the Celtics and Wizards — that was the year Matthew Shepard, a gay college student in Wyoming, was killed, and the Trevor Project, a suicide prevention organization, was founded.” ‘Courage’ and ‘inspiration’ are words that get thrown around a lot in sports, but Jason Collins has given both ideas a brand new context,” said Aaron McQuade, who heads the sports program for the advocacy group GLAAD, “We hope that his future team will welcome him, and that fans of the NBA and sports in general will applaud him. We know that the NBA will proudly support him, and that countless young LGBT Athletes now have a new hero.”In February, former U.S. soccer national team player Robbie Rogers said he was gay — and retired at the same time. Rogers is just 25, and others have urged him to resume his career.“I feel a movement coming,” he tweeted after the Collins news broke.Female athletes have found more acceptance in coming out; Brittney Griner, one of the best women’s basketball players in the world, caused little ripple when she acknowledged earlier this month she was a lesbian. Tennis great Martina Navratilova tweeted Monday that Collins is “a brave man.”“1981 was the year for me- 2013 is the year for you,” her post added.last_img read more

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Over 70 Beers to Taste Test at Seaside’s Pouring at the…

first_imgFacebook10Tweet0Pin0There may be no better way to spend St. Patrick’s Day in the Pacific Northwest than heading to Seaside, Oregon for the 9th Annual Pouring at the Coast brew fest. Held at the Seaside Civic and Convention Center, it’s the only place where you can sample beer and wine from over 30 breweries.Spend St. Patrick’s Day among friends, good beer and good wine at the 9th Annual Pouring at the Coast in Seaside, Oregon. Photo courtesy: Seaside ChamberIt’s no secret that Oregon and Washington are becoming known for our excellent local beers and this festival will have something for everyone – whether your taste is for traditional beers or craft beers created by microbreweries – with over 70 beers to choose from, there is sure to be one you like.The Start of Something SpecialPouring at the Coast began in 2009, when past Seaside Chamber of Commerce Director Al Smiley shared his love of beer with local Seaside brewery owner Jimmy Griffin. Through a series of discussions, the idea to create an event was discussed and the breweries dinner was born.These dinners attracted more than 60 guests each night and centered on pairing the beers with specific dishes. But soon more ideas surfaced and the Pouring at the Coast was on the horizon. With the growing popularity of craft beers, it seemed like a winning idea that paired perfectly with Seaside’s beautiful setting, just like Guinness and oysters.Organized jointly by the Seaside Chamber and Jimmy Griffin, the Pouring at the Coast has grown into a major yearly event hosting between 700-900 people each year. “It is a perfect fit for Seaside at this time of year,” says Chamber employee Sandi McDowall.Schedule of Events for the Pouring at the CoastThe Pouring at the Coast begins on Saturday, March 17 at 3:00 p.m. and runs to 8:00 p.m. While you partake in the beer tasting and wine tasting, the Pouring is the perfect atmosphere to hang out with friends. Live music from two bands will complete the party feel and definitely add to the ambience as you sip your stout or admire the glow of a pale ale.Choose from over 70 beers to taste test and then vote for your favorite during the People’s Choice Competition. Photo courtesy: Seaside ChamberOne of the highlights of the day is the Craft Beer Festival and People’s Choice Competition. This is where you get to sample some beer and vote on your festival favorites!Admission is just $20 and includes a souvenir tasting glass and five tasting tickets. A special pre-order admission for $25 that includes a souvenir pilsner glass and seven tasting tickets is only available in a limited number and only if you purchase your admission online.Seaside is a great place to get away, enjoy the beautiful beaches, great shopping and experience this year’s Pouring at the Coast. With so much to do, it’s a great place to spend a night or two for the perfect weekend getaway. There are many wonderful places to stay in Seaside, including Starry Night Inn, a newly renovated 1919 Victorian home that has been transformed into a magical bed & breakfast, and the iconic The Tides by the Sea, where the first thing you will see when you wake up each morning is the breaking waves in one for their oceanfront rooms. For something fun, be sure to check out suite 157, known as the “Titanic Room” or suite 147, the romantic “Emerald Suite.”To purchase tickets, visit the Pouring at the Coast website.last_img read more

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Paper ballots may be back

first_imgHOUSE: Lawmakers’ push for backup records frustrates some state election officials. By Jim Abrams THE ASSOCIATED PRESS WASHINGTON – Lawmakers have come full circle after devoting more money to high-tech voting machines following the 2000 election debacle in Florida. They now say a return to the paper trails of old is the key to an honest vote, exasperating state election officials. Legislation pending in the House would require a voter-verified paper ballot for every vote cast in national elections beginning with the November 2008 ballot. It also would require random audits in federal elections and specifies that the paper ballot is the vote of record in all recounts and audits. Public confidence in the voting process is at an all-time low, said Rep. Rush Holt, D-N.J., the bill’s chief sponsor. “I shudder to think what would happen with another election where millions of Americans don’t believe the results,” Holt said. But his bill has been hit by a barrage of criticism from state and local election officials and election machine makers who contend the timelines are unrealistic, the audit process is overly cumbersome, the reliance on paper is too restrictive and the money allotted to replace existing systems, $1billion, is insufficient. “The ramifications of hasty action on this ill-conceived piece of legislation are immense and far-reaching,” Donna Stone, a member of the Delaware House of Representatives and president of the National Conference of State Legislatures, wrote to House leaders Wednesday. R. Doug Lewis, executive director of the Election Center of the National Association of Election Officials, said the bill was so objectionable that, if passed, he would recommend that state and local election officials refuse to run future federal elections. A planned vote on the House floor Thursday was put off after the legislation met resistance in the Democratic-controlled Rules Committee, which sets rules for floor debate. “I really am scared we’re waltzing off a cliff here,” said Rules Committee Chairman Louise Slaughter, D-N.Y., citing the need for more comprehensive election reform. It could come up on Monday. Few were arguing against the need for Congress to restore integrity to the election system. In 2002, Congress passed an election reform act approving nearly $4 billion aimed at correcting some of the technology and registration problems epitomized by the “hanging chad” dispute in Florida that left the outcome of the 2000 presidential election to a Supreme Court decision. A 2006 study by the Election Data Services predicted 80percent of registered voters would use optical scan or electronic voting equipment in that year’s election. About 13 percent would use lever or punch card devices, it said. But Holt argued that with the headlong rush to buy new voting systems, as many as 50 million voters in the 2004 election cast ballots on electronic voting machines that lacked a voter-verified paper audit trail. He said that included up to 1 million in the 10 largest counties of Ohio, where Democrats claimed that voting irregularities were pivotal to President Bush’s re-election. There was trouble again in Florida in 2006 after Democrats blamed touch-screen voting machine malfunctions for 18,000 “undervotes” in a House race won by the Republican candidate by 369 votes. The Florida secretary of state said an audit found no problems with the machines. Holt argued that under his bill only six states – Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina and Tennessee – which had no voter-verified paper ballot in 2006, would have to upgrade all their voting machines by 2008. Another 14 states would need partial changes. The bill also would mandate that only durable, scannable, accessible paper ballots be used by 2012. Ballot-marking machines must be able to deposit the ballots automatically into a secure container for later access. Direct recording machines must allow disabled voters to privately and independently verify the contents of the paper ballot printed out. Voters would be able to look at the actual printed record of their vote but would not get a printed copy, as with an ATM machine. The measure also requires that random audits be conducted by hand count in 3 percent of precincts in all federal elections and would ban wireless devices, Internet connections and uncertified software in voting and tabulating machines. Rep. Zoe Lofgren, D-Calif., a lead sponsor, said late changes had been made to the bill to meet some criticisms from states about funding and from machine manufacturers about providing outside investigators access to proprietary computer software. “I believe we have addressed as well as possible all reasonable concerns,” she said. But David Beirne, executive director of the Election Technology Council, which represents voting equipment manufacturers, said it normally takes 54 months to develop, install and train people in new machines, and, even with quick passage, meeting the 2012 deadline would be “a tall order.” He also urged caution on making paper the “official ballot of record,” saying that, just as electronic machines can malfunction, paper is subject to printer jams and improper handling by poll workers. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

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QPR round-up: Striker bid accepted, Kpekawa deal agreed, keeper’s new contract

first_imgQPR have agreed a fee in the region of £1.5m with Belgian club Anderlecht for striker Idrissa Sylla.The Guinea international, 25, is due in London to discuss personal terms ahead of a possible pre-deadline move to Loftus Road.Rangers are keen to sign at least one striker before Wednesday night’s deadline and Sylla is one of several options they have been considering.West London Sport also revealed today that QPR have agreed a fee with Barnsley for Cole Kpekawa.Barnsley made an offer for the defender last week and after Rangers quickly indicated that they would be willing to sell him, the two clubs struck a deal worth around £450,000.Many QPR fans on Twitter have reacted with dismay to the news that Kpekawa could be leaving.Meanwhile, young R’s goalkeeper Joe Lumley has agreed terms on a new contract at Loftus Road.The club are keen to extend Lumley’s deal and send him out on loan this week.And manager Jimmy Floyd Hasselbaink has paid tribute to Rangers captain Nedum Onuoha, saying he ‘brings calmness and leads by example.’Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

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Caring for Yourself… and Others: 7 Tips for Caregivers during the Holiday Season

first_imgBy Bari Sobelson, MS, LMFT and Hannah Hyde, M.Ed.“Rest and self-care are so important. When you take time to replenish your spirit, it allows you to serve others from the overflow. You cannot serve from an empty vessel.”-Eleanor BrownFlickr[Love Yourself by Quinn Dombrowski, CC0]The holidays are here again and many of us are already finding ourselves overwhelmed at the prospect. We may find that many of our clients are feeling the same way, wondering what they can do differently this year than they did the last few years to avoid the typical holiday meltdowns, blues, and stress. This is particularly important to those clients who are acting as caregivers in addition to every other role they play in their lives.So how can we, as service professionals, help our clients this holiday season? We can start by talking with them about self-care and its endless benefits. Most importantly, we can help our clients see that they already have the tools that are necessary to meet their own needs so that they can then be better equipped to provide for others. While self-care will look different for everyone, we have provided a list of 7 tips that caregivers may find useful in their quest for a peaceful and joyful holiday season.You can download and print the PDF version ofHoliday Tips for Caregivers! While this handout was created for you to share with your clients, this information can also be beneficial to you and your work! We hope you can find something from this list that is helpful to you in your efforts! Happy Holidays from all of us on the MFLN Family Development and Military Caregiving Teams!This blog was written by Bari Sobelson, MS , LMFT, Social Media and Programming Coordination Specialist for the MFLN Family Development Team and Hannah Hyde, M.Ed., Social Media Specialist with the MFLN Military Caregiving Team.last_img read more

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After MP3: The Past, Present, and Future of Audio Codecs

first_imgHistory of Audio CodecsImage via Joeyg417.Since the first known audio recording in 1860 on a Phonautograph, audio recording and playback technology has been in a constant state of flux. The 20th century introduced the era of the professional sound recordists and engineers, the age of transmission of audio across radio waves, massive advancements in audio quality and technology, and continued growth in the audio industry — and trade in general.In 1982, the audio world took its first steps into the new millennium with the first ever digital audio format — the compact disc. Built on the groundbreaking Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) technology, the CD was able to store analog sound waves as digital values by “quantizing” them to their nearest supported digital value.Pulse Code Modulation sparked a new era of innovation for digital audio formats. Within a decade, recognizable modern codecs like MP3 and WAV were gaining traction. The early 2000s saw the first wave of lossless audio codecs that brought digital quality even higher without the trade-off of large file sizes.But these superior formats were unprepared for the MP3 player craze of the early ’00s. Apple’s iPod brought the masses to the world of digital audio, and the MP3 became the standard for audio playback worldwide.With the death of the MP3, what codec is best poised to take its place? What possibilities does modern technology bring to the potential of future audio codecs?The Codecs of TodayImage via Nejron Photo.There are many audio codecs in heavy use across a myriad of industries today. Many of the entries on this list were introduced decades ago, but there are a few new codecs shining light on the potential that the future of audio codecs holds.AMR — Adaptive Multi-Rate: The AMR Codec family is one of the most commonly used audio formats in the world. This is largely because it is the de facto audio standard on mobile phones. AMR is optimized for speech, which means it is a low-quality, low-bandwidth, low-latency codec. AMR was not developed for music or high-quality audio recording or playback.FLAC — Fully Lossless Audio Codec: FLAC is considered by many to be the better version of MP3. It compresses files to remarkably small sizes, and does so without any percieved loss in audio quality. FLAC files are very lightweight and versatile and can be played back on any device that can play MP3s. And it’s open-source, which wins it all sorts of awards in my book, notably third-party implementations of the codec and its features.Waveform Audio File Format, commonly shortened to WAV, has been an industry workhorse for almost three decades. The secret of its sticking power is the codec’s simplicity and durability. WAVs generally offer some of the highest-quality uncompressed audio without need for transcoding. Its stability means that often WAV files that have been damaged or corrupted will still play back.ALAC — Apple Lossless Codec: Released in 2004, Apple Lossless Codec, or Apple Lossless, supports eight channels of audio up to a 32-bit depth and maximum sample rate of 384kHz. In 2011, Apple made ALAC open-source and royalty-free.AAC — Advanced Audio Coding: AAC was created by the Fraunhofer Institute — the same engineers behind MP3 compression. With the expiration of MP3 earlier this year, the Fraunhofer Institute recommends AAC as its replacement codec. AAC is a lossy format whose main selling point is its significantly higher sound quality than MP3 at the same bit rates.DSD — Direct Stream Digital: DSD is a unique high-quality audio codec. The underlying technology behind DSD is a bit different than the standard Pulse Code Modulation found in most other codecs. DSD employs Pulse-Density Modulation encoding — reducing the resolution of the bit stream and increasing the sample rate to 2.8 million times per second — to generate the audio signal. DSD has limited use in the audio world, serving largely as an audiophile codec to be played back on specialty hardware.Opus: Opus is the most modern codec to make this list. Released in 2012, it was developed to serve as a single standard for several applications where there were multiple before. Opus was created with the needs of the modern world in mind — central to its philosophy is high-quality, low-latency audio suitable for network communications and live music performances. Its latency can be reduced to as low as 5 ms — most other codecs can barely offer 100ms of latency, by comparison.Each year brings new variations and flavors of new codec technology, but what should we be looking for in a new standard for mass audio distribution?The FutureImage via LumenGraphics.While the myriad of formats to choose from today might be overwhelming, the time is ripe to start setting expectations for the codecs to come. There is much to learn from codecs of the recent and more distant past. The WAV’s reliable simplicity and universal functionality, FLAC’s fully lossless open-source model, Opus’s optimization for voice and general audio — technology has changed radically, so why shouldn’t our codecs?A Dream CodecImage via whiteMocca.Here’s what I’m looking for in an ideal future audio codec:Secure: Makes use of all modern security and cryptographic technologies.Open: Open-source and fully documented.Universal support: Can be recorded and played back without the need for new hardware or software.Fully lossless: Lightweight and high-quality.Multi-use: Optimized for voice and general audio use.High resolution: Support for highest possible recording resolutions.While most of these ideal parameters exist in codecs today, no single codec has united all of these specifications in a meaningful way. Let’s hope the future is more open, more usable, more functional, and sounds great to boot.In the coming decade, audio codecs that push the boundaries are going to become more commonplace. The underlying technology of encoding and decoding advances and evolves, merging with other sciences and disciplines as it goes.I doubt that the audio world will ever see a single “industry-standard” codec again — I predict that audio formats will continue to develop into niches in much the same way as video codecs have. This will allow for greater usability and greater task specialization, which will make significant strides in streamlining the audio pipeline.No matter what happens, the technological backbone of audio production and playback is past due for alignment. If current trends hold, there is a good chance the audio world will be unrecognizable in 10 years.Cover image via gonin.Looking for more audio information? Check out these articles.Video Tutorial: The Audio Transition You Need to Start UsingAudio Gear: 10 Super Cheap Accessories for Your Audio Kit5 Quick Tips: Mixing Audio for Film and Video ProjectsHow to Clean up Noisy Video and Audio in 30 SecondsAudio Tip: How to Get Good Sound on Every Budget With the MP3 gone, what audio codecs are poised to become the new standard? Let’s talk about compression, modern audio codecs, and the future of audio.In 2017 the patents for MP3, held by The Fraunhofer Institute, expired. As 2018 unfolds, more and more manufacturers are pulling support for the codec. The MP3 format is one of the most widely known audio codecs, and it was largely responsible for the explosion of the digital audio world.With the MP3 gone, what codecs are in the best position to become the new industry standard?In this article, we will examine the basics of codecs, take a look at the big-name audio formats around today, and finally take a speculative look into the coming decades of audio codecs.What Are Audio Codecs?Image via Vector Icon Flat.Codec is short for encode/decode. They can be hardware or software — both take the analog signal input and convert it to a digital format. The decode function is the exact same process but reversed to allow the digital data stream to be converted into analog sound waves for output.There are three categories of codec: uncompressed, lossy, and lossless.Uncompressed: Uncompressed audio files encode the full audio input signal into a digital format capable of storing the full load of the incoming data. They offer the highest quality and archival capability that comes at the cost of large file sizes and high latency (non-real time playback), prohibiting their widespread use in many cases.Lossy: Lossy files are encoded differently than uncompressed. The essential function of analog-to-digital conversion remains the same in lossy encoding techniques. Lossy diverges from uncompressed, as the frequency of the input sound waves are sampled down to an approximately similar digital value. The sum total of all of these possible digital values gives the codec what is known as its bit depth. The bit depth of the codec, 16-bit or 24-bit most commonly, determines how accurately the sound is being “quantized” — the process of sampling used to round the incoming sound waves to their nearest values. Lossy codecs throw away a considerable amount of the information contained in the original sound waves.Because of this, lossy audio files are vastly smaller than uncompressed ones and offer much lower latency playback, allowing for use in live audio scenarios.Lossless: Lossless encoding stands as the middle ground between uncompressed and lossy. It grants similar audio quality to uncompressed at significantly reduced sizes. Lossless codecs achieve this by compressing the incoming audio in a non-destructive way on encode before restoring the uncompressed information on decode.last_img read more

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